Table 1

Baseline Characteristics

Control Group
(n = 88)
RFM Group
(n = 61)
p Value
Age, yrs57.2 ± 9.958.4 ± 10.80.5
Male61 (69.3)34 (56)0.1
Anthropometric measures
 Weight, kg96.6 ± 16.8100.7 ± 17.60.2
 BMI, kg/m232.1 ± 4.733.5 ± 4.60.1
AF type
 Paroxysmal49 (56)40 (65)0.2
 Nonparoxysmal39 (44)21 (35)
Metabolic risk factors
 Hypertension73 (83)53 (87)0.5
 Diabetes mellitus17 (19)9 (15)0.5
 Hyperlipidemia47 (53)39 (64)0.2
 Coronary artery disease10 (11)10 (16)0.4
 AHI >3055 (62)32 (53)0.2
 Alcohol excess (>30 g/week)24 (27)11 (18)0.2
 Smoker31 (35)20 (33)0.8
Medication use
 No. of antiarrhythmic agents1.0 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.30.1
 No. of antihypertensive agents1.6 ± 1.21.5 ± 1.10.4
Echocardiographic measures
 LA volume index, ml/m242.4 ± 10.442.5 ± 120.9
 LV septum, mm11.0 ± 212.0 ± 20.1
 LVIDd, cm5.1 ± 0.75.3 ± 0.50.2
 LVEF, %60 ± 10.161.1 ± 80.5
Atrial Fibrillation Severity Scale
 Frequency (1–10)6.6 ± 1.16.8 ± 1.20.5
 Duration (1–10)6.7 ± 1.36.4 ± 1.60.3
 Severity (1–10)6.9 ± 1.36.6 ± 1.50.2
 Symptom (0–35)23.1 ± 3.722 ± 5.20.1
 Global well-being (1–10)2.5 ± 0.92.4 ± 0.90.4

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

AF = atrial fibrillation; AHI = apnea–hypopnea index; BMI = body mass index; LA = left atrial; LV = ventricular; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVIDd= left ventricular internal dimension in diastole; RFM = risk factor management.