Table 1

Baseline Characteristics

Control (n = 24)HOHF (n = 120)p Value
Age, yrs61 ± 1259 ± 120.40
Female46530.60
Body surface area, m21.9 ± 0.22.0 ± 0.30.20
Body mass index, kg/m226.6 (24.1–30.1)32.5 (25.5–39.1)0.003
Estimated plasma volume, ml2,831 (2,493–3,060)3,561 (2,946–4,132)<0.0001
Comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation8160.30
 Coronary artery disease25200.60
 Hypertension63560.60
Medications
 Beta-blocker46540.50
 ACEI/ARB42500.50
 Diuretic462<0.0001
Laboratories
 Hemoglobin, g/dl13.9 ± 1.211.1 ± 1.8<0.0001
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m287 ± 2981 ± 560.60
 NT-proBNP, pg/ml76 (38–228)734 (327–2,253)<0.0001
 Radiographic cardiomegaly, %053<0.0001
Echocardiography
 Ejection fraction, %60 ± 964 ± 80.03
 LV end-diastolic dimension, mm48 ± 651 ± 50.005
 LV mass index, g/m288 ± 20110 ± 320.002
 E/A ratio1.0 ± 0.61.5 ± 0.70.005
 E/e’ ratio10 ± 316 ± 6<0.0001
 Estimated RVSP, mm Hg30 ± 760 ± 15<0.0001
 Estimated cardiac index, l/min/m22.8 ± 0.63.9 ± 0.9<0.0001
Vital signs
 Heart rate, min-168 ± 1381 ± 150.0002
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg139 ± 24133 ± 250.30
 Mean blood pressure, mm Hg91 ± 1388 ± 180.50
Central hemodynamics
 Right atrial pressure mm Hg4 ± 211 ± 5<0.0001
 PA systolic pressure, mm Hg27 ± 657 ± 15<0.0001
 PA mean pressure, mm Hg16 ± 437 ± 9<0.0001
 PA wedge pressure, mm Hg7 ± 318 ± 6<0.0001
Flow measures
 Cardiac output, l/min5.2 ± 1.89.5 ± 2.1<0.0001
 Cardiac index, l/min/m22.68 ± 0.804.72 ± 0.75<0.0001
 Stroke volume, ml77 ± 23122 ± 33<0.0001
 Stroke volume index, ml/m240 ± 960 ± 14<0.0001
Metabolic and vascular measures
 O2 consumption, ml/min210 ± 61333 ± 111<0.0001
 O2 consumption, ml/min·kg2.60 ± 0.493.65 ± 1.19<0.0001
 Arterial O2 content, ml/dl18.0 ± 1.713.8 ± 2.3<0.0001
 Mixed venous O2 content, ml/dl13.5 ± 1.810.3 ± 2.4<0.0001
 Arterial-venous O2 difference, ml/dl4.4 ± 0.93.5 ± 1.10.0005
 SVR, dyne/s·cm51,460 ± 475682 ± 241<0.0001
 SVRI, dyne·m2/s·cm52,782 ± 8461,336 ± 399<0.0001
 PVR, dyne/s·cm5150 ± 64170 ± 940.30
 PVRI, dyne/s·cm5287 ± 118331 ± 1650.20

Values are mean ± SD, %, or median (25th–75th interquartile range).

ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin-receptor blocker; E/A = ratio of mitral inflow velocity between early diastole and atrial contraction; E/e’ = ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity and early diastolic tissue relaxation velocity at the ventricular septum (a noninvasive estimate of LV filling pressure); eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HOHF = high-output heart failure; LV = left ventricle; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; O2 = oxygen; PA = pulmonary artery; PVR = pulmonary vascular resistance; PVRI = pulmonary vascular resistance index; RVSP = right ventricular systolic pressure; SVR = systemic vascular resistance; SVRI = systemic vascular resistance index.