Table 6

Suggested Actions to Address Key Research Needs

Suggested ActionsResearch Needs
Address Study Design Issues
  • Clear descriptions of study methods and the interventions

    • Explicit implementer and target of intervention

  • Standardized measures of outcomes and descriptions of practice settings

Conduct New Research to Test the Effectiveness of Interventions
  • Effect on clinical outcomes, rather than intermediate outcomes

  • Cost effectiveness

  • Effect of multicomponent interventions, including specific combinations of interventions

  • Effect of policy-level interventions, for example:

    • Reimbursement

    • Accreditation

    • Publicly reported quality metrics

  • Effect of interventions targeting varieties of:

    • Settings, including baseline workflows

    • Clinician types

    • Types of diseases and conditions

Focus Evaluations on Contextual Factors
  • Organizational and practice context

  • Involvement of stakeholders and leadership

  • Integration with workflow

  • Implementation scope

  • Duration

  • Timing

Leverage EHR Data and Tools
  • Mine data for observational studies

  • Platform for pragmatic prospective studies

  • Access longer-term data than RCTs

  • Aggregate data and/or interventions by key factors, for example:

    • Patient characteristics

    • Clinician characteristics

    • Clinic

    • Healthcare delivery system

Conduct Qualitative and Observational Research
  • Effectiveness in diverse populations

  • Drivers of success in real-world implementations

  • Contextual issues not amenable to RCTs

EHR indicates electronic health record; and RCTs, randomized controlled trials.