Author + information
- Received July 31, 1991
- Revision received November 6, 1991
- Accepted November 20, 1991
- Published online May 1, 1992.
- José López-Sendón, MD, FESC∗,
- Ana González, MD,
- Esteban López de Sá, MD, FESC,
- Isabel Coma-Canella, MD, FESC,
- Inmaculada Roldán, MD,
- Francisco Domínguez, MD,
- Isidoro Maqueda, MD and
- Luis Martín Jadraque, MD
- ↵∗Address for reprints: José López-Sendón, MD, Coronary Care Unit, Hospital La Paz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Paseo de la Castellana no. 261, 28046 Madrid, Spain.
When ventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction is not followed by sudden death, it is referred to as subacute ventricular rupture. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic diagnostic variables obtained at bedside are unknown and were therefore prospectively studied in 1,247 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction including 33 patients with subacute ventricular rupture diagnosed at operation (group A) and 1,214 patients without ventricular rupture (at operation, postmortem study or at discharge) (group B).
The incidence of syncope, recurrent chest pain, hypotension, electromechanical dissociation, cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusion, high acoustic intrapericardial echoes, right atrial and right ventricular wall compression identified in two-dimensional echocardiograms and hemopericardium demonstrated during pericardiocentesis was higher in group A than in group B (p < 0.00001). The presence of cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusion >5 mm, high density intrapericardial echoes or right atrial or right ventricular wall compression had a high diagnostic sensitivity (≥ 70%) and specificity (>90%). The number of false positive diagnoses was always high for each diagnostic variable ahme (>20%), but the combination of clinical (hypotension), hemodynamic (cardiac tamponade) and echocardiographic variables allowed s sensitivity of ≥ 65% with a small number of false positive diagnoses (< 10%) and provided useful information for therapeutic decisions.
The diagnosis of subacute ventricular rupture requires a surgical decision. Twenty-five (76%) of the 33 patients with subacute ventricular rapture survived the surgical procedure and 16 (48.5%) are long-term survivors. Thus, subacute ventricular wall rupture is a relatively frequent complication after acute myocardial infarction that can be accurately diagnosed and successfully treated.
☆ This study was supported in part by a grant from the Spanish Society of Cardiology, Madrid, Spain.
- Received July 31, 1991.
- Revision received November 6, 1991.
- Accepted November 20, 1991.