Author + information
- Received April 18, 1983
- Accepted May 18, 1983
- Published online October 1, 1983.
- ↵*Address for reprints: Richard L. Popp, MD, Cardiology Division, C-248, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305.
Two-dimensional echocardiography of Hancock porcine heterograft valves was evaluated by correlation with clinical, hemodynamic, angiographic and pathologic findings in 80 patients. Ninety-five aortic and mitral bioprostheses were categorized by the type of valvular abnormality: group I, dysfunction due to primary tissue failure (41 valves); group II, dysfunction due to paravalvular leakage without infection (5 valves); group III, infective endocarditis with or without hemodynamic dysfunction (28 valves); and group IV, control cases without dysfunction or infection (21 valves).
Increased size of a bioprosthetic leaflet image (minimal dimensions 3 x 5 mm) was observed in 46% (19 of 41) of cases with primary tissue failure and in 62% (10 of 16) of cases with leaflet vegetations due to endocarditis. Prolapse of leaflet echoes to below the level of the bioprosthetic sewing ring occurred in 76% (28 of 37) of cases with torn leaflets and also in 46% (6 of 13) of valves with vegetations on intact leaflets. Antegrade extension of leaflet echoes to beyond the level of the stents, observed in 4 of 16 cases with leaflet vegetations, was the only echocardiographic sign distinguishing leaflet infection from leaflet degeneration. Aortic bioprostheses with ring dehiscence affecting 40 to 90% of the anular circumference showed motion discordant with the motion of the adjacent aortic root and native anulus.
Although echocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed with bioprosthetic leaflet degeneration or infection, the echocardiographic appearance often does not distinguish between these two major complications and is best interpreted concurrently with other clinical and laboratory assessment.
with the technical assistance of Kitty Filly, Marjorie Pittman, Ginger Briskin
- Received April 18, 1983.
- Accepted May 18, 1983.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation