Author + information
- Received August 11, 1994
- Revision received February 14, 1995
- Accepted February 27, 1995
- Published online July 1, 1995.
- Koichi Mizumaki, MD*,
- Akira Fujiki, MD,
- Masanao Tani, MD,
- Mayumi Shimono, MD,
- Hideki Hayashi, MD and
- Hiroshi Inoue, MD, FACC
- ↵*Address for correspondence: Dr. Koichi Mizumaki. The Second Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-01, Japan.
Objectives. This study sought to elucidate differences in mechanisms of neurally mediated syncope between patients with syncope induced by head-up tilt alone and those requiring isoproterenol infusion to induce syncope during head-up tilt.
Background. Some patients with neurally mediated syncope require isoproterenol to induce syncope during head-up tilt (isoproterenol dependent), and others do not (isoproterenol independent). Differences in mechanisms between these two groups have not been well elucidated.
Methods. A 60° head-up tilt test was performed in 13 patients with isoproterenol-independent syncope (Group I, mean [±SD] age 28 ± 12 years), 14 patients with isoproterenol-dependent syncope (Group II, mean age 34 ± 14 years) and 20 control subjects without syncope (Group III, mean age 32 ± 12 years). Left ventricular size and contractility were determined by echocardiography, and sympathovagal balance was determined with power spectral analysis of heart rate variability using a maximal entropy method.
Results. Group I patients had smaller left ventricular dimensions than Groups II and III during baseline tilt. During head-up tilt with isoproterenol infusion (0.01 to 0.04 μg/kg body weight per min), left ventricular dimensions decreased to the same extent in Groups II and III, but fractional shortening was greater in Group II than in Group III at the end of the tilt. The ratio of low (0.05 to 0.15 Hz) to high frequency (0.15 to 1.0 Hz) component became greater in Group I than in Groups II and III during the last period of baseline tilt. However, the ratio was greater in Group II than in Group III during the last period of the tilt with isoproterenol.
Conclusions. Patients with isoproterenol-independent syncope had an exaggerated decrease in left ventricular size and sympathetic predominance preceding syncope during head-up tilt. In contrast, in patients with isoproterenol-dependent syncope, similar changes in autonomic nervous balance were evident only during isoproterenol infusion in addition to head-up tilt.
- Received August 11, 1994.
- Revision received February 14, 1995.
- Accepted February 27, 1995.
- The American College of Cardiology