Author + information
- Received March 30, 2001
- Revision received September 10, 2001
- Accepted September 20, 2001
- Published online January 2, 2002.
- Michael E Lewis, MB, ChB, BSc, FRCS∗,
- Abdhul-Hakam Al-Khalidi, PhD†,
- John N Townend, MD, FRCP‡,
- John Coote, BSc, PhD† and
- Robert S Bonser, FRCS, FRCP∗,* ()
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Robert S. Bonser, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, United Kingdom.
Objectives We investigated the interaction of heart rate (HR), temperature and contractility using a validated load independent method.
Background Temperature manipulation is an integral part of cardiac surgery, and postoperative hypothermia is extremely common. Myocardial contraction is a series of enzymatic and physico-chemical reactions that may be differentially affected by temperature.
Methods Ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were studied during moderately hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. After conduit procurement and heparinization but before grafting, the patient was placed on cardiopulmonary bypass and rewarmed to 37°C, and the left ventricle (LV) was instrumented with a conductance catheter allowing continuous pressure and volume measurement. The LV pressure volume relationship was examined to assess the contractility at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C, with fixed atrial pacing (100 beats/min) in five patients and at 80 and 120 beats/min, at 33 and 37°C in five patients.
Results At a HR of 100 beats/min, lower temperature resulted in a highly significant decrease in maximal elastance (100% at 37°C, 29 ± 3.5% at 31°C, p < 0.0001). At 37°C, increasing HR increased contractility (80 beats/min 100%, 120 beats/min 205.9%, p = 0.0021); however, at 33°C contractility fell with increasing HR (80 beats/min 100%, 120 beats/min, 53.7%, p = 0.0014).
Conclusion At normothermia LV contractility has a direct relationship with HR. In hypothermic conditions this relationship inverses. Clinical strategies maintaining higher HRs at colder temperatures result in reduced contractility. These factors are important in the management of cardiac surgical patients.
☆ Dr. Lewis was supported by a Junior Research Fellowship from the British Heart Foundation (BHF) during this work and equipment costs are met by the National Heart Research Fund (NHRF). Dr. Al-Khalidi is supported by the NHRF and BHF.
- Received March 30, 2001.
- Revision received September 10, 2001.
- Accepted September 20, 2001.
- American College of Cardiology