Author + information
- Received April 2, 2007
- Revision received July 13, 2007
- Accepted July 16, 2007
- Published online October 16, 2007.
- Matthew A. Allison, MD, MPH⁎,†,⁎ (, )
- Elizabeth O. Lillie, PhD†,
- Dominic DiTomasso, BS‡,
- C. Michael Wright, MD† and
- Michael H. Criqui, MD, MPH⁎,†
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Matthew A. Allison, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, Mailcode 0817, La Jolla, California 92093-0817.
Objectives We tested the hypothesis that renal artery calcium (RAC), a marker of atherosclerotic plaque burden, is also significantly associated with higher blood pressure levels and a diagnosis of hypertension.
Background In the nonrenal systemic vasculature, atherosclerotic plaque burden has been shown to be significantly associated with hypertension.
Methods A total of 1,435 consecutive patients were evaluated at a university-affiliated disease prevention center for the extent of calcified atherosclerosis in the systemic vasculature.
Results The overall prevalence of calcium in either renal artery was 17.1%, with men having a significantly higher prevalence (19.0%, 153 of 804) than women (14.7%, 93 of 631) (p = 0.03). After adjustment for age and gender, subjects with a RAC score >0 had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (41.2 vs. 29.5, p < 0.01). In a logistic model that adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, percent body fat, diabetes, smoking, dyslipidemia, and the extent of calcified atherosclerosis in the nonrenal vasculature, those with any RAC had a significantly higher odds ratio (1.61, p = 0.01) for hypertension than those with no RAC.
Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the presence of RAC is associated with higher odds for prevalent hypertension, independent of CVD risk factors and the extent of calcified atherosclerosis in the nonrenal vasculature.
This work was supported by a grant (to Dr. Allison) and a summer research fellowship (to Dr. DiTomasso) from the American Heart Association. Franz Messerli, MD, served as Guest Editor for this article.
- Received April 2, 2007.
- Revision received July 13, 2007.
- Accepted July 16, 2007.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation