Author + information
- Mustafa Tarık Ağaç1,
- Levent Korkmaz1,
- Mustafa Cetin1,
- Turhan Turan2,
- Ali Rıza Akyüz2,
- Hakan Erkan1,
- Bülent Vatan3,
- Ramazan Akdemir3 and
- Şükrü Çelik1
Several studies have demonstrated the presence of an association between male pattern baldness (androgenic alopecia) and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factors of atherosclerosis. Association between androgenic alopecia and hypertension has been established. However, there is no data on arterial stiffness measures of asymptomatic young adults with androgenic alopecia.
A hundred and seventy four asymptomatic male medical personnel aged between 18-45 years were consecutively enrolled to the study. Data collected included age, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, familial history of coronary artery disease, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, body-mass index. Subjects were considered to have androgenic alopecia if they have grade 3 vertex or more alopecia according to Hamilton-Norwood scale. Subjects were dichotomized according to presence of androgenic alopecia. Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) and defined as abnormal if CAVI is measured >8.
Clinical and laboratory characteristics between subjects with and without androgenic alopecia were summarized in Table 1. Subjects with androgenic alopecia had higher mean CAVI than patients without androgenic alopecia (7.62 ± 0.92 vs. 7.23 ± 0.88, p=0.001). Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial index (ABI) were not significantly different in patients with and without androgenic alopecia. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to find the independent factors associated with abnormal CAVI. The covariates included age, body mass index, smoking status, family history of coronary artery disease, presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and alopecia. In this model, presence of androgenic alopecia (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.2-20.0, p=0.001), hypertension (OR, 8.4; 95% CI, 1.9-37.4, p=0.006), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 7.0; 95% CI, 1.4-35.0, p=0.02) and age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.2, p=0.001) were found to be independently associated with abnormal CAVI (Table 2).
Androgenic alopecia is independently associated with arterial stiffness in asymptomatic young adults.
|CAVI||7.62 ± 0.92||7.23 ± 0.88||0.006|
|ABI||1.10 ± 0.08||1.12 ± 0.09||NS|
|CIMT*||0.4 (0.4-0.5)||0.4 (0.4-0.5)||NS|
|Age*, years||34 (29-39)||32 (29-38)||NS|
|Diabetes mellitus, n (%)||0 (0 %)||0 (0 %)||NS|
|Hypertension, n (%)||8 (8 %)||4 (5.4 %)||NS|
|Hypercholesterolemia, n (%)||2 (2 %)||8 (10.8 %)||NS|
|Smoking, n (%)||48 (48 %)||30 (40.5 %)||NS|
|BMI*, (kg/m2)||27 (25-29)||26 (25-31)||NS|
|Family history of CAD, n (%)||30 (30 %)||10 (13.5 %)||0.01|
|Systolic blood pressure, mmHg||135 ± 11||133± 15||NS|
|Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg||84 ± 10||81 ± 8||NS|
ABI, ankle brachial index; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; CAVI, cardio ankle vascular index; CIMT, carotid intima media thickness, NS, non-significant. Data are expressed as no. (%) or mean ± standard deviation. *Data are presented as median and interquartile ranges.
|Variables||CAVI < 8|
|CAVI ≥ 8|
|OR (95 % CI)||P|
|Alopecia, n (%)||66 (50.4 %)||34 (79.1 %)||6.7 (2.2-20.0)||0.001|
|Hypertension, n (%)||3 (2.3 %)||9 (20.9 %)||8.4 (1.9-37.4)||0.006|
|Age, years||32.7 ± 5.8||37.7 ± 4.8||1.1 (1.0-1.2)||0.001|
|Hypercholesterolemia, n (%)||5 (3.8 %)||5 (11.6 %)||7.0 (1.4-35.0)||0.02|
The covariates included age, body mass index, smoking status, family history of coronary artery disease, presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and alopecia.