2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk
A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines
Robert H. Eckel, John M. Jakicic, Jamy D. Ard, Janet M. de Jesus, Nancy Houston Miller, Van S. Hubbard, I-Min Lee, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Catherine M. Loria, Barbara E. Millen, Cathy A. Nonas, Frank M. Sacks, Sidney C. Smith Jr., Laura P. Svetkey, Thomas A. Wadden and Susan Z. Yanovski
ESs for BP and Lipids With the MED Pattern
• Counseling to eat a MED pattern, as compared with minimal advice to consume a low-fat dietary pattern, in free-living middle-aged or older adults (with type 2 diabetes or at least 3 CVD risk factors) reduced BP by 6–7/2–3 mm Hg. In an observational study of healthy younger adults, adherence to a MED pattern was associated with lower BP (2–3/1–2 mm Hg).
Strength of Evidence: Low
• Counseling to eat a MED pattern, compared with minimal or no dietary advice, in free-living middle-aged or older adults (with or without CVD or at high risk for CVD) resulted in no consistent effect on plasma LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides, in part because of substantial differences and limitations in the studies.