Author + information
- Received August 12, 2014
- Revision received December 9, 2014
- Accepted December 16, 2014
- Published online March 17, 2015.
- William B. Farquhar, PhD∗,
- David G. Edwards, PhD∗,
- Claudine T. Jurkovitz, MD† and
- William S. Weintraub, MD†∗ ()
- ∗Department of Kinesiology & Applied Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware
- †Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, Christiana Care Outcomes Research Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. William S. Weintraub, Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, Christiana Care Outcomes Research, Christiana Care Health System, 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road, Newark, Delaware 19718.
Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium.
National Institutes of Health Grants R01 HL104106, 5P20RR016472, U54-GM104941, and 8P20 GM103446 supported the authors’ work. The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose. All authors contributed to the writing of this review article.
- Received August 12, 2014.
- Revision received December 9, 2014.
- Accepted December 16, 2014.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation