Author + information
- Received September 10, 2014
- Revision received October 14, 2014
- Accepted November 4, 2014
- Published online February 10, 2015.
- Peter Schnohr, MD, DMSc∗∗ (, )
- James H. O’Keefe, MD†,
- Jacob L. Marott, MSc∗,
- Peter Lange, MD, DMSc∗,‡ and
- Gorm B. Jensen, MD, DMSc∗,§
- ∗Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
- †Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute and University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri
- ‡Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, and Section of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
- §Department of Cardiology, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Peter Schnohr, Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, Copenhagen DK-2000, Denmark.
Background People who are physically active have at least a 30% lower risk of death during follow-up compared with those who are inactive. However, the ideal dose of exercise for improving longevity is uncertain.
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between jogging and long-term, all-cause mortality by focusing specifically on the effects of pace, quantity, and frequency of jogging.
Methods As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1,098 healthy joggers and 3,950 healthy nonjoggers have been prospectively followed up since 2001. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed with age as the underlying time scale and delayed entry.
Results Compared with sedentary nonjoggers, 1 to 2.4 h of jogging per week was associated with the lowest mortality (multivariable hazard ratio [HR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11 to 0.80). The optimal frequency of jogging was 2 to 3 times per week (HR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.69) or ≤1 time per week (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.72). The optimal pace was slow (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.10) or average (HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.66). The joggers were divided into light, moderate, and strenuous joggers. The lowest HR for mortality was found in light joggers (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.47), followed by moderate joggers (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.38) and strenuous joggers (HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 0.48 to 8.14).
Conclusions The findings suggest a U-shaped association between all-cause mortality and dose of jogging as calibrated by pace, quantity, and frequency of jogging. Light and moderate joggers have lower mortality than sedentary nonjoggers, whereas strenuous joggers have a mortality rate not statistically different from that of the sedentary group.
Supported by the Danish Heart Foundation. The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received September 10, 2014.
- Revision received October 14, 2014.
- Accepted November 4, 2014.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation