Author + information
- Received August 30, 1985
- Revision received November 13, 1985
- Accepted January 13, 1986
- Published online June 1, 1986.
- Daniel Wohlgelernter, MD, FACCa,
- Michael Cleman, MD,
- H. Ainsley Highman, BA, BS, PAC,
- Robert C. Fetterman, BS,
- James S. Duncan, PHD,
- Barry L. Zaret, MD, FACC and
- C. Carl Jaffe, MD
- ↵aAddress for reprints: Daniel Wohlgelernter, MD, Adult Catheterization Laboratory, UCLA School of Medicine, 47-123 CHS, Los Angeles, California 90024.
Balloon inflation performed during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty causes transient total occlusion of the coronary artery and thus provides a model for evaluation of the regional myocardial responses to transient ischemia. Twenty patients with normal left ventricular function undergoing angioplasty of isolated stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery were studied. In group A (14 patients) analysis of one inflation-deflation sequence per patient was performed. Group B (six patients) had multiple (>5) inflations; the first and last sequences were analyzed. Assessment included continuous two-dimensional echocardiography with computerized quantitative analysis of regional left ventricular wall motion, and continuous 12 lead electrocardiographic recordings.
The mean duration of inflation in group A was 62 ± 6 seconds (mean ± SD). The onset of regional left ventricular dysfunction was 12 ± 5 seconds after inflation. Profound dysfunction was noted in all patients. After 60 seconds of balloon occlusion of the coronary artery, 29% of patients had severe hypokinesia of the ischemic region and 71 % had akinesia or dyskinesia. With deflation there was prompt recovery of regional function, with full recovery at 43 ± 17 seconds. Comparison of data from first and last inflations in group B revealed no significant differences in time to onset of dysfunction, magnitude of dysfunction or time to complete recovery of function. The onset of ischemic electrocardiographic changes lagged behind the onset of wall motion abnormalities, with only 64 % of patients showing evidence of ischemia on 12 lead electrocardiograms at 20 seconds of inflation. After 60 seconds, 86% had ischemia detectable by electrocardiography.
Thus, balloon inflation during coronary angioplasty leads to profound but reversible regional left ventricular dysfunction. Repeated occlusions of the coronary artery during angioplasty do not have a cumulative ischemic effect. It may be hazardous to apply these findings to patients who have underlying major left ventricular dysfunction and in whom the reversibility of dysfunction and lack of cumulative ischemic effect may not be assured.
- Received August 30, 1985.
- Revision received November 13, 1985.
- Accepted January 13, 1986.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation