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Nearly 100 million people live at altitudes greater than 2500m. Long-term high-altitude residents have lower ventilation and higher arterial Pco2,and in some cases, develop chronic medical problems attributable to their high -altitude residence. Heart failure patients face several physiologic challenges at high altitude, Inflammation and dystrophic calcification have been associated with chronic heart failure (CHF),changes in pathophysiological functions are reported during sea level altitude however, Few study have explored altitude difference(2260m, 3300m) of change levels of serum Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2 in patients with congestive heart failure and effects on ventricular remodeling. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect the altitude difference explore on Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2, and to study the relationship between changes of Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2 and left ventricular mass index(LVMI),mean wall stress(MWS).
A total of 129 consecutive patients with CHF with matched age and sex were enrolled, and CHF patients were divided into high altitude group(3300m) (n= 62) and moderate altitude group(2260m) (n=67) according to altitude. The levels of Serum Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2 were measured by ELISE. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography, LVMI and MWS were calculated.
The level of Serum Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2 and LVMI, MWS in CHF patients lived at high altitude were higher than those at moderate altitude [(32.04+6.76) ng/ml vs (23.96+4.63) ng/ml, (8.85+2.04)pg/ml vs (5.23+1.58) pg/ml, (189.7+19.5) vs (96.3+18.4) g/m2 and (476.2+114.9) vs (304.7+113.5) dynes x103/cm2 respectively, all p<0.01]. It was found that LVMI, MWS has a positive correlation with the level of Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2 (LVMI and Galectin-3, SolubleST2 r=0.6352 and 0.7081, MWS and Galectin-3, SolubleST2 r=0.5907 and 0.4659 respectively, all P<0.01).
The changes LVMI and MWS were more related to higher level of Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2. At high altitude, increasing in the level of Galectin-3 and Soluble ST2 with increasing altitudes lead to severe abnormalities of ventricular remodeling in Chand correlated with the severity degree of ventricular remodeling in CHF.