Author + information
- Received November 17, 2019
- Revision received January 30, 2020
- Accepted February 11, 2020
- Published online April 13, 2020.
- Marta Guasch-Ferré, PhDa,b,∗ (, )@MartaGuasch1,
- Gang Liu, PhDc,
- Yanping Li, PhDa,
- Laura Sampson, RDa,
- JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPHb,d,e,
- Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhDf,g,
- Miguel A. Martínez-González, MD, PhDa,g,h,
- Meir J. Stampfer, MD, PhDb,d,
- Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPHa,b,d,
- Qi Sun, MD, PhDa,b and
- Frank B. Hu, MD, PhDa,b,d
- aDepartment of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
- bChanning Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
- cDepartment of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
- dDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
- eDivision of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
- fHuman Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain
- gCentro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
- hUniversity of Navarra, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Pamplona, Spain
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Marta Guasch-Ferré, Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
Background Olive oil intake has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Mediterranean populations, but little is known about these associations in the U.S population.
Objectives This study sought to examine whether olive oil intake is associated with total CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke risk.
Methods This study included 61,181 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1990 to 2014) and 31,797 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1990 to 2014) who were free of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires at baseline and then every 4 years. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results During 24 years of follow-up, this study documented 9,797 incident cases of CVD, including 6,034 CHD cases and 3,802 stroke cases. After adjusting for major diet and lifestyle factors, compared with nonconsumers, those with higher olive oil intake (>0.5 tablespoon/day or >7 g/day) had 14% lower risk of CVD (pooled HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.94) and 18% lower risk of CHD (pooled HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91). No significant associations were observed for total or ischemic stroke. Replacing 5 g/day of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, or dairy fat with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with 5% to 7% lower risk of total CVD and CHD. No significant associations were observed when olive oil was compared with other plant oils combined. In a subset of participants, higher olive oil intake was associated with lower levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and a better lipid profile.
Conclusions Higher olive oil intake was associated with lower risk of CHD and total CVD in 2 large prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. The substitution of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil could lead to lower risk of CHD and CVD.
This work was supported by research grants UM1 CA186107, UM1 CA176726, U01 CA167552, P01 CA87969, P01 CA055075, R01 HL034594, HL088521, HL35464, DK120870, and HL60712 from the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Guasch-Ferré received grant 1-18-PMF-029 from the American Diabetes Association. Dr. Salas-Salvadó gratefully acknowledges the financial support by ICREA under ICREA Academy. Drs. Salas-Salvadó and Marínez-Gonzáklz are principal investigators of PREDIMED-Plus and received olive oil used in the PREDIMED and PREDIMED-Plus trials from The Fundaciòn Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero and Hojiblanca SA (Malaga, Spain). Dr. Hu has received research support from California Walnut Commission. All other authors have reported that they have nor relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received November 17, 2019.
- Revision received January 30, 2020.
- Accepted February 11, 2020.
- 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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