Author + information
- Received January 5, 2020
- Revision received March 10, 2020
- Accepted March 23, 2020
- Published online May 18, 2020.
- Leslie Cho, MDa,∗ (, )@clevealandclinic,
- Melinda Davis, MDb,
- Islam Elgendy, MDc,
- Kelly Epps, MDd,
- Kathryn J. Lindley, MDe,
- Puja K. Mehta, MDf,
- Erin D. Michos, MDg,
- Margo Minissian, PhDh,
- Carl Pepine, MDi,
- Viola Vaccarino, MDj,
- Annabelle Santos Volgman, MDk,
- for the ACC CVD Womens Committee Members
- aCleveland Clinic Foundation, Heart Vascular Institute, Cleveland, Ohio
- bUniversity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
- cDivision of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
- dInova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, Virginia
- eWashington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- fEmory Healthcare Network, Atlanta, Georgia
- gJohns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland
- hCedars Sinai, Los Angeles, California
- iUF Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
- jEmory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia
- kRush Medical College, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Leslie Cho, 9500 Euclid Avenue JB-1, Cleveland, Ohio 44195.
• CVD remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women.
• Women have unique risk factors for CVD—such as PCOS and pregnancy-associated conditions that increase future risk of CVD.
• Women also have different manifestations of CVD, and studies have shown sex differences in their response to risk factors and treatments.
• Knowledge of unique risk factors in women as well as treatment gap is critical in lowering cardiovascular risk in women.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women in the United States and worldwide. There has been no American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association guideline update specifically for the prevention of CVD in women since 2011. Since then, the body of sex-specific data has grown, in addition to updated hypertension, cholesterol, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, and primary prevention guidelines. The ACC CVD in Women Committee undertook a review of the recent guidelines and major studies to summarize recommendations pertinent to women. In this update, the authors address special topics, particularly the risk factors and treatments that have led to some controversies and confusion. Specifically, sex-related risk factors, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, use of aspirin, perimenopausal hormone therapy, and psychosocial issues are highlighted.
Dr. Cho has received research support from Novartis; has received research support from and served as a consultant to Esperion and Amgen; and has served as a consultant to AstraZeneca. Dr. Minissian has served as a consultant for Amgen, Medtelligence, and the North American Center for Continuing Medical Education; and has received research support from the National Institutes of Health and NIHF. Dr. Pepine has received support from the NIH/NHLBI (WISE HFpEF, HL146158), NIH/NCATS (University of Florida Clinical and Translational Science, UL1TR001427), the Gatorade Trust through the University of Florida Department of Medicine, the McJunkin Family Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Defense (WARRIOR, PR161603). Dr. Vogelman has served as a consultant for the American Heart Association; and has served as a speaker for Aptus Health. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper.
The authors attest they are in compliance with human studies committees and animal welfare regulations of the authors’ institutions and Food and Drug Administration guidelines, including patient consent where appropriate. For more information, visit the JACC author instructions page.
- Received January 5, 2020.
- Revision received March 10, 2020.
- Accepted March 23, 2020.
- 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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