Author + information
- Received May 14, 2020
- Revision received July 8, 2020
- Accepted July 9, 2020
- Published online August 31, 2020.
- Julie B. Damp, MDa,∗ (, )@BoydDamp,
- Michael W. Cullen, MDb,
- Victor Soukoulis, MD, PhDc,
- Marty C. Tam, MDd,
- Friederike K. Keating, MDe,
- Sakima A. Smith, MD, MPHf,
- Deepak Bhakta, MDg,
- Islam Abudayyeh, MD, MPHh,
- Atif Qasim, MDi,
- Audrey Sernyak, MD, MBAj,
- Alex Auseon, DOk,
- Paul Theriot, BSl and
- Gaby Weissman, MDm
- aDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee
- bDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
- cDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
- dDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
- eUniversity of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Burlington, Vermont
- fCardiovascular Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
- gCardiovascular Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
- hDivision of Cardiology, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California
- iDivision of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California
- jDivision of Cardiology, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware
- kDivision of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
- lAmerican College of Cardiology, Washington, DC
- mDepartment of Cardiology, Medstar Heart and Vascular Institute and Georgetown University, Washington, DC
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Julie B. Damp, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1215 21st Avenue South, MCE 5th Floor South Tower, Nashville, Tennessee 37232.
Background Women and minorities are under-represented in cardiovascular disease (CVD) specialties. It remains unknown how characteristics of the CVD learning environment affect diversity and how program directors (PDs) approach these critical issues.
Objectives The second annual Cardiovascular PD Survey aimed to investigate characteristics of the CVD learning environment that may affect diversity and strategies PDs use to approach these issues.
Methods The survey contained 20 questions examining U.S.-based CVD PD perceptions of diversity in CVD and related characteristics of the CVD fellowship learning environment.
Results In total, 58% of PDs completed the survey. Responding programs demonstrated geographic diversity. The majority were university-based or -affiliated. A total of 86% of PDs felt diversity in CVD as a field needs to increase, and 70% agreed that training programs could play a significant role in this. In total, 89% of PDs have attempted to increase diversity in fellowship recruitment. The specific strategies used were associated with PD sex and the presence of under-represented minority trainees in the program. PDs identified lack of qualified candidates and overall culture of cardiology as the 2 most significant barriers to augmenting diversity. A majority of programs have support systems in place for minority fellows or specific gender groups, including procedures to report issues of harassment or an unsafe learning environment. PDs identified shared best practices for recruitment and implicit bias training, among others, as important resources in their efforts to support diversity in CVD training.
Conclusions Diversity is important to CVD PDs. They are striving to increase it in their programs through recruitment and strategies directed toward the fellowship learning environment. The CVD community has opportunities to standardize strategies and provide national resources to support PDs in these critical efforts.
The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
The authors attest they are in compliance with human studies committees and animal welfare regulations of the authors’ institutions and Food and Drug Administration guidelines, including patient consent where appropriate. For more information, visit the JACC author instructions page.
- Received May 14, 2020.
- Revision received July 8, 2020.
- Accepted July 9, 2020.
- 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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